When Matthew quotes the prophet Hosea in 2:15, “Out of Egypt I called my son,” one might be tempted to scratch their head in confusion. Wasn’t Hosea talking about Israel in the original context? Doesn’t it say, when you flip back there, “When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son.” (Hosea 11:1)?
So what is this? Is it simply a case of Matthew Googling words in my mind, searching the Hebrew Scriptures for something that might be used as a proof text? “Hey, look, fellow Jews. The word ‘son’ is used in Hosea, and in close proximity to Egypt! See! This proves that Jesus is the Messiah.”
Is that what’s going on?
As for myself, I’ve been chewing on this subject more closely for a few years now. I still have much to learn. But when it comes to this subject, two names immediately come to mind. G.K. Beale and D.A. Carson. You can’t go wrong with these guys in this area. They are heavy weights.
In this regard, I cannot say that I’ve heard anything more helpful than D.A. Carson’s audio lecture on the subject. It is an absolute gem. That being said, there’s more than one version of the lecture out there. There is a really technical one where he’s talking to students in Europe, I believe. It’s a three-part lecture. Then there is another three part lecture. The J.B Gay Lectures. That one is very good and it will be the one I link to here. And there’s another very much like it. Here are some sources:
Use of the OT in the NT, 3 part series, (MP3) by D. A. Carson (This is the advanced classroom one).
Union University’s “Word Within the Word” conference on “How The Book of Hebrews Makes Use of Old Testament Passages”, by D. A. Carson Psalm 2:7 and 2 Samuel 7:14 in Hebrews 1, Psalm 95 in Hebrews 3–4, Genesis 14 and Psalm 110 in Hebrews 7
You will find that the second and third of these three different sources overlap considerably. So picking either proves essentially the same. The first is different, however. If you are a crazy scavenger like myself, then you’ll want to listen to that as well. But the second or third source is more than sufficient.
Difficulty: Intermediate to Advanced
Must Listen Factor: Theological buffs, this is must listen. Casuals and Infrequents might have a hard time staying afloat. But if you put in the effort, it will yield much.
Download Audio, Hard Texts: Why Does Hebrews Cite the Old Testament. See picture.